Aortic Valve Disease

Aortic Valve Stenosis, Aortic Valve Regurgitation

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Aortic valve diseases, including aortic valve stenosis (a narrowed valve opening) and aortic valve regurgitation (a leaking valve), require evaluation and management by a cardiologist or cardiac surgeon. More serious conditions may require surgery to repair or replace the aortic valve.

Duke’s aortic valve disease specialists use advanced testing to identify the severity of your condition and offer the latest medical and surgical treatments. Our goal is to help you feel better and return you to your normal activities.

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Tests for Aortic Valve Disease

Your doctor may recommend one or more of the following tests to evaluate and identify aortic valve disease depending on your condition and symptoms, which may include a heart murmur, chest pain, or arrhythmia as well as fatigue, dizziness, or fainting, especially after activity.


Small electrodes are placed on your skin to record your heart’s electrical impulses. The results may help identify risk for or prior heart muscle damage.


An ultrasound probe is moved over the surface of your chest to capture moving images of your heart. This allows us to determine your heart’s chamber dimensions, shape, and valve structures, and to evaluate overall function.

3D Transesophageal Echocardiogram

An ultrasound probe passed through your esophagus is used to capture sound waves. The test creates highly detailed, close-up 3D images of your heart’s chamber dimensions, shape, valve structures, and overall function.

Cardiac MRI

Radio waves, magnets, and a computer create still and moving images of your overall heart structure, heart muscle function, blood vessels, and surrounding structures.

Contrast-Enhanced CT Imaging

Contrast dye is administered to highlight certain vessels and aortic valve size on CT scan images. This helps doctors determine valve sizing and the best approach for surgery.

Cardiac Catheterization

Flexible tubes called catheters are guided through a blood vessel to your heart to look for blockages and to assess overall heart function. Contrast dye is injected and X-rays are taken to capture images of your heart, coronary arteries, and other blood vessels.

Genetic Heart Disease Testing

Congenital heart conditions such as Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes can increase your risk for aortic valve disease. Comprehensive genetic testing and screening can help determine the best treatment approach for you and identify family members who could be at risk.

Our Locations

Duke Health has heart clinics in Durham, Raleigh, Cary, and other locations throughout North Carolina. Find one near you.

Aortic Valve Disease Treatments

Our cardiologists and heart surgeons use a full range of therapies to treat aortic valve disease. When surgery is needed, our skilled heart surgeons repair or replace diseased aortic valves, often with minimally invasive techniques.


Medications may be prescribed to reduce and prevent aortic valve disease symptoms and complications. These may include ACE inhibitors or beta-blockers to lower blood pressure, antiarrhythmics to help maintain a regular heart rhythm, anticoagulants to prevent blood clots, and diuretics that can help reduce fluid retention.

Aortic Valve Repair/Replacement (AVR) Surgery

Open-heart surgery for aortic valve repair or replacement may be performed through an incision in the mid-chest or through a small incision in the upper-right chest, known as a mini-thoracotomy. If you need surgery, your surgeon will recommend the approach and procedure that are best for your needs and anatomy.

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)

Also called transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), this minimally invasive procedure is used to treat aortic valve stenosis as well as some cases of aortic valve insufficiency and degeneration of bioprosthetic valves. The heart is accessed through small incisions, and a prosthetic valve is implanted within the diseased valve. 

TAVR and AVR can preserve or improve heart function, quality of life, and survival. Our specialists are skilled in the placement of all commercially available TAVR devices and use multiple delivery approaches (through the groin, neck, or chest). As a result, we are able to offer treatment options to people who have been turned away elsewhere.

Why Choose Duke

More Experience, Better Outcomes
As a high-volume center, we have extensive experience and excellent outcomes with transcatheter aortic valve replacement, a minimally invasive alternative to open heart surgery.

More Minimally Invasive Treatments
Our heart surgeons offer minimally invasive techniques in which the they reach and repair the aortic valve through small incisions -- which may reduce blood loss, scarring, and the risk of infection while speeding your recovery.

A Choice of Heart Valve Replacements
If you need a heart valve replacement, we offer mechanical valves made of carbon, as well as valves made from animal tissue. We screen and educate you on the best option for your needs and lifestyle.

Clinical Trials Access
As a Duke patient, you may be able to participate in clinical trials or therapies that may not be available at other centers. 

Support for Your Recovery
Our cardiac prevention and cardiac rehabilitation programs give you a personalized plan for recovery after surgery and help with long-term management of your heart health. Programs include exercise instruction, nutritional counseling, and lifestyle modification to optimize your health.

Best Heart Hospital in North Carolina

When it comes to your heart care, you want the very best. Duke University Hospital is proud of our team and the exceptional care they provide. They are why our cardiology and heart surgery program is nationally ranked, and the highest-ranked program in North Carolina, according to U.S. News & World Report for 2023–2024.

This page was medically reviewed on 11/02/2022 by