Duke’s pediatric endocrinologists care for infants, children, and teens with the following thyroid disorders.
Hypothyroidism (Underactive Thyroid)
This is when the thyroid gland doesn’t make enough thyroid hormone. Some children are born with a thyroid gland problem. Others develop autoimmune conditions, such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, that damage the thyroid gland.
Hyperthyroidism (Overactive Thyroid)
This is when the thyroid gland makes too much thyroid hormone. Types of hyperthyroidism include Graves’ disease, Hashitoxicosis, and an overactive thyroid nodule.
Goiter (Enlarged Thyroid Gland)
A goiter can indicate an underactive or overactive thyroid gland. In some cases, the gland grows so large that it causes breathing or swallowing problems.
These growths within the thyroid gland may be benign (noncancerous) or, less commonly, cancerous. Nodules can also be nonfunctioning, meaning they don’t produce hormones, or hyperfunctioning (they produce extra thyroid hormone).
Occurs when cancer cells grow in the cells of the thyroid gland. Types include papillary, follicular, and medullary thyroid cancers.
Can increase a child’s risk of developing thyroid cancer. These include multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), DICER1 syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), Gardner syndrome, Carney complex, Werner syndrome, and PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome.