- Radioactive Iodine: In pill or liquid form, it is administered 4–8 weeks after surgery to target and destroy thyroid cancer cells anywhere in the body.
- Vandetanib (Caprelsa) and Cabozantinib (Cometriq): Both are approved to treat late-stage medullary thyroid cancer in patients who are ineligible for surgery.
- Sorafenib (Nexavar): Approved by the FDA for the treatment of advanced differentiated thyroid cancer.
Thyroid Hormone Therapy
Slows or halts cancer cell growth and is used to control thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels.
Minimal Access Surgery
Uses small incisions and may be performed under local anesthesia in the outpatient setting when appropriate. Includes lobectomy, which removes the side of the thyroid where the tumor is located.
- Near-total or total thyroidectomy removes most or the entire thyroid.
- Lymph node removal may be required if metastatic cancer is diagnosed.
- Chest goiter removal removes goiters (enlarged thyroid) that extend into the chest.
- Removal of cancer that has spread to other areas of the neck (neck dissections) may be necessary when cancers spread to lymph nodes or organs in the neck.
- Re-operations may be necessary for recurrent tumors or goiters.