Treating retinoblastoma, a cancer of the eye, takes a team of skilled pediatric specialists and advanced technology. You'll find that combination at Duke Children's, a leading regional referral center for children with retinoblastoma. Our wealth of experience and access to leading-edge testing and treatment advances ensures we do everything possible to protect your child’s health, vision, and well-being.

Your Child's Immediate Treatment Is Our Priority

Retinoblastoma is a cancerous tumor that grows in the retina, the light-sensing part of the eye. It’s not usually noticeable at birth. Most children are diagnosed around 24 months of age. Retinoblastoma is a highly treatable cancer. It is estimated that 95 percent of children diagnosed with retinoblastoma survive this condition. All children with retinoblastoma need to wear special shatterproof glasses to protect their eyes.

From your first visit with us, you'll work with a dedicated team that’s committed to giving your child the very best care and giving your family the support you need.

  • When your child is diagnosed with retinoblastoma, your child’s immediate treatment is our priority. We see your child at Duke within a day or two and begin treatment within a week to 10 days, depending on the tests needed to determine the best treatment strategy. Our team evaluates the results and creates a personalized care plan for your child.
  • Our ocular oncologist (eye cancer specialist) works closely with pediatricians and pediatric specialists in ophthalmology, cancer, neurosurgery, anesthesiology, and nursing. We offer complete care for your child’s cancer and long-term follow up after treatment is completed. We understand that a retinoblastoma diagnosis is daunting, so psychologists and social workers and are here to provide counseling and support to you and your family.
  • Among other treatment options, Duke Children’s uses targeted methods to deliver chemotherapy directly to your child’s eye without exposing their entire body to chemotherapy. That means there are fewer side effects, and your child recovers faster. Duke Children’s is the first hospital in North Carolina to offer a type of targeted chemotherapy called intra-arterial chemotherapy. This is just one of the reasons why pediatricians across the region refer their young patients to Duke.
  • Our pediatric cancer specialists are also researchers who are committed to improving care for childhood cancer. We’re a member of the Children's Oncology Group , a worldwide organization that's dedicated to improving care for childhood and adolescent cancer through research. That means your child gets the most effective treatment approaches based on the combined knowledge of cancer experts worldwide.

How We Diagnose Retinoblastoma

We do a careful diagnosis of your child using a physical exam and other tests to determine the best course of treatment. We use advanced imaging exams such as optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this test, a handheld device gives us a clear picture of your child's retina in seconds. We use blood tests or samples (biopsies) of bone marrow or spinal fluid, if needed, to see if cancer is anywhere else in your child’s body.

Retinoblastoma can be caused by a genetic mutation, so a blood test also tells us whether your child has hereditary retinoblastoma. Children with this form of the disease are at risk for other tumors, so long-term regular checkups are recommended. In addition, if your child has the genetic mutation, other members of the family should have blood tests to check for the gene. Our genetic counselors will discuss your family’s risk, who should be tested, and what steps should be taken to evaluate for cancer.


Your child’s care team will discuss which options will offer your child the best results and what you can expect during treatment and recovery. In most instances, treatment is done on an outpatient basis. All treatments are done while your child is asleep under general anesthesia, administered by specialized pediatric anesthesiologists. We use the least-invasive methods to treat retinoblastoma. Radiation and surgery are used only when other treatments aren’t possible.

Family-Friendly Services

We understand the impact cancer can have on your child and your family, so we offer special services to help you through it. You can depend on knowledgeable, compassionate experts at your side.

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